Nowadays it’s hard to impress or even surprise with an interface animation. It shows interactions between screens, explains how to use the application or simply directs a user’s attention. While exploring the articles about animation, I found out that almost all of them describe only specific use cases or general facts about animation, but I haven’t come across any article where all rules concerning animation of interfaces would be clearly and practically described. Well, in this article I won’t write anything new, I just want to collect all the main principles & rules in one place, so that other designers who want to start animating interfaces don’t have to search for additional information.

Duration and speed of the animation

When elements change their state or position, the duration of the animation should be slow enough to give users the possibility to notice the change, but at the same time quick enough not to cause waiting.

Use proper duration in your animation. Don’t make it too fast and don’t leave the user enough time to yawn. These figures are based on the particular qualities of the human brain. Any animation shorter than 100 ms is instantaneous and won’t be recognized at all. Whereas the animation longer than 1 second would convey a sense of delay and thus be boring for the user.
Duration of the animation you should better have in your interfaces

On the mobile devices, Material Design Guidelines also suggests limiting the duration of animation to 200–300 ms. As for tablets, the duration should be longer by 30% — around 400–450 ms. The reason is simple: the size of the screen is bigger so objects overcome the longer path when they change position. On wearables, the duration should be accordingly 30% shorter — around 150–200 ms, because on a smaller screen the distance to travel is shorter.

Size of mobile devices affects the duration of the animation

Web animation is treated in a different way. Since we are accustomed to an almost instant opening of web-pages in a browser, we expect to transit between different states quickly as well. So, the duration of web transitions should last about 2 times shorter than on mobile devices — between 150–200 ms. In other cases, the user will inevitably think that the computer freezes or has troubles with the internet connection.

But. Forget about these rules if you are creating a decorative animation on your website or trying to attract the user’s attention to certain elements. In these cases, animation can be longer.

Large screen of computer = Slow animation? No way!

You need to remember that regardless of the platform the duration of the animation should depend not only on the traveled distance but also on the size of the object. Smaller elements or animation with small changes should move faster. Accordingly, the animation with large and complex elements looks better when it lasts a little longer.

Among the moving objects of the same size, the first one to stop is the object that has passed the shortest distance.

Small objects in comparison with large objects are moving slower since they make bigger offsets.

Duration of the animation differs depending on the size of the object and the traveled distance

When objects collide, the energy of collision must be evenly distributed between them according to physical laws. So, it’s better to exclude the bounce effect. Use it only in exceptional cases when it makes sense.

Avoid using the bouncing effect since it distracts attention

The movement of the objects should be clear and sharp so do not use motion blur (yes, After Effects users, not this time). It is difficult to reproduce the effect even on modern mobile devices and it’s not used in interface animation at all.

Do not use the blur effect in your animation

List items (news cards, email lists, etc) should have a very short delay between its appearance. Each occurrence of the new element should last from 20 to 25 ms. The slower emergence of elements may annoy the user.

Animation for list items should last 20–25 ms

Easing

Easing helps to make the movement of the object more natural. It’s one of the essential principles of the animation, which is thoroughly described in the book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animationwritten by two key Disney animators — Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas.

For the animation not to look mechanical and artificial, the object should move with some acceleration or deceleration — just like all live objects in the physical world.

Animation with easing looks more natural compared to the linear one

Linear motion

Objects that are not affected by any physical force move linearly, in other words with constant speed. And just because of this fact they look very unnatural and artificial for the human eye.

All applications for animation use the animation curves. I will try to explain how to read them and what they mean. The curve shows how the position of the object (y axis) changes during the same time intervals (x axis). In the current case, the movement is linear, so the object travels the same distance at the same time.

The curve of linear motion

Linear motion can, for example, be used only when the object changes its color or transparency. Generally speaking, we can use it for the states when an object does not change its position.

Ease-in or acceleration curve

We can see on the curve that at the beginning the position of the object changes slowly and the speed increases gradually. That means the object is moving with a certain acceleration.

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